Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945

Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945 :: Battle of Surabaya (10 november 1945) is an historical event of war between the military forces of Indonesia and the Netherlands. This great event occurred on November 10, 1945 in Surabaya, East Java. This battle was the first war of Indonesian troops with foreign forces after the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia and one of the largest and heaviest battles in the history of the Indonesian National Revolution which became the national symbol of resistance against colonialism Indonesia.

Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945

The arrival of Japanese troops to Indonesia

Dated March 1, 1942, Japanese troops landed on the island of Java, and seven days later on March 8, 1942, the Dutch surrendered unconditionally to Japan under the Agreement Kalijati. After the unconditional surrender proficiency level, Indonesia formally occupied by the Japanese.

Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945

The arrival of British troops and the Netherlands

After the defeat of the Japanese, the people of Indonesia and the fighters tried to disarm the Japanese army. There arose the battles that took the lives in many areas. When the movement to disarm the Japanese troops were blazing, on 15 September 1945, British troops landed in Jakarta, then landed in Surabaya on October 25, 1945. The British are coming to Indonesia joined in AFNEI (Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies) for block-making and on behalf of the Allies, with the task of disarming the Japanese troops, freeing the prisoners of war who were detained Japan, the Japanese army and to return to his country. But other than that the British soldiers who came to restore Indonesia's mission to bring the administration of the Dutch as the Dutch East Indies colony. NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration) come ride with a group of British troops for the purpose. This triggered the turmoil the people of Indonesia and Indonesia led to the movement of popular resistance everywhere against the AFNEI and the NICA.

Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945

Ultimatum 10 November 1945

After the murder of Brigadier General Mallaby, his successor, Major General Robert Mansergh issued an ultimatum that says that all leaders and people of Indonesia are armed to report and put the gun in the place designated and submit himself with the arms raised above. Limit of the ultimatum was at 6:00 the morning of 10 November 1945.

Ultimatum is then regarded as an insult to the fighters and the people who have established many agencies struggle / militia. The ultimatum was rejected by the Indonesia Republic of Indonesia on the grounds that it was already standing, and the People's Security Army (TKR) has also been established as the state forces. In addition, many organizations have formed an armed struggle of society, including among the youth, students and students who oppose the inclusion of a ride back to the Dutch presence of British troops in Indonesia.

On 10 November morning, British troops launched a large-scale attack, which began with aerial bombing of government buildings to Surabaya, and then deploy about 30,000 infantry, a number of aircraft, tanks, and ships bombarded the city of Surabaya perang.Inggris then the cannon of sea ​​and land. Resistance forces and militia Indonesia then raged throughout the city, with the active assistance of the population. Involvement of residents in this battle resulted in thousands of civilians falling victim to the attack, either dead or wounded.

Bung Tomo in Surabaya, one of the leaders of Indonesia's most revered revolutionary. This famous photograph for many people involved in the Indonesian National Revolution represents the soul of the major revolutionary struggle Indonesia at that time. [5]

To her surprise the British who suspect that the resistance in Surabaya can be conquered in three days, the community leaders such as Bung Tomo young pioneers who have a big impact in the community continues to drive the spirit of resistance Surabaya youth so that resistance persists in the middle of a large-scale attack England.

Religious figures of the clergy as well as Java kyais cottage like KH. Hashim Ash'ari, KH. Wahab Hasbullah and kyais other schools are devoting their students-students and civil society as a militia resistance (at the time that people are not so obedient to the government but they are more docile and obedient to the religious scholars) shingga Indonesia longstanding opposition party, from day to day, from week to week to another. Resistance of the people who initially carried out spontaneously and are not coordinated, increasingly regular basis. This large-scale battle to achieve up to three weeks, the entire city of Surabaya before finally falling in the hands of the British.

At least 6.000 to 16.000 of the Indonesian fighters were killed and 200,000 civilians displaced from Surabaya. [2]. Victims of British and Indian troops about a number of 600 - 2000 soldiers. [3] The bloody fighting in Surabaya which took thousands of lives have been moving people throughout Indonesia resistance to repel invaders and to maintain independence. The number of fighters and civilians who fall victims to this day 10 November and is remembered as Heroes Day by the Republic of Indonesia until now.

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Judul: Battle of Surabaya 10 November 1945
Ditulis oleh : Indonesia Documents Group
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